As a new White House Administration begins preparing its agenda for many crucial issues, Secure World Foundation prepared a brief for the Biden transition team. Below is an executive summary of that brief.
Outer space activities are more important to the United States now than at almost any time in our history. The capabilities and services delivered by satellites provide critical national security capabilities, scientific advances, economic opportunities, and the tools to understand and respond to a changing climate. At the same time, the space domain is becoming increasingly complicated. Three major trends – the rapid growth in new actors conducting space activities, an increasing number of active satellites and debris objects, and the growing potential for conflict – creates both opportunities and challenges that require policy responses. As the world’s leading space power, the United States remains at the forefront of most space activities, but that position is not guaranteed.
To its credit, the Trump Administration brought renewed focus and public visibility to space policy. While some of the Trump Administration’s space policy decisions and initiatives have generated criticism, that is more due to the political rhetoric accompanying them than the substance. Many of the Trump Administration’s space policy decisions continue long-standing principles and goals that have persisted across administrations, Republican and Democrat, because they reflect core American values and national interests. First and foremost among those interests are sustained U.S. international leadership in ensuring the long-term sustainability, safety, and security of the space domain and space activities. This is not done out of pure altruism, but to ensure that that we – the United States, our citizens, government, and companies – can continue to use space for benefits into the future.
We urge the Biden Administration to continue to place a high priority on space policy and reinforce the recent national space policy decisions that reflect long-standing U.S. principles while abandoning the divisive and antagonistic rhetoric. Consistency across key national space efforts – such as the commercial space sector, the Space Force,, and the Artemis Program – will help move America forward and avoid the constant reset and lack of strategic direction that has happened in the past. At the same time, there are significant challenges that remain unresolved and will need bold leadership, both at home and abroad, to be addressed. The following are the compiled recommendations across all areas of U.S. space policy.
Interagency Space Policy Process
Keep the National Space Council.
Reform the Users Advisory Group.
Give NASA the authority to develop and execute a space environmental management plan.
Centralize orbital debris mitigation requirements under one regulatory agency.
Lead the creation of incentives for responsible behavior in space.
Prioritize ensuring baseline observational capabilities.
Work with international partners to augment observations and research.
Support the development of commercial space weather services.
Space Situational Awareness and Space Traffic Management
Swiftly implement civil SSA and STM authority in a federal agency.
Leverage commercial and international capabilities to the maximum extent while also supporting SSA as a public good.
National Security Space
Redouble efforts to improve resilience.
Establish norms of behavior for military space activities.
Lay the foundation for focused space arms control.
Engage with and through multilateral fora to help shape international consensus on norms of behavior to enhance safety, stability, and sustainability in space.
Implement the principles in the Artemis Accords to strengthen international space governance.
Increase engagement with domestic commercial and other non-governmental stakeholders in support of U.S. international space diplomacy objectives.
U.S. Space Force
Consolidate military space acquisitions authority under the USSF.
Clarify the future missions for the USSF and its role in U.S. space activities.
Develop a national consensus on space deterrence doctrine.
Modify the Wolf Amendment to allow for limited space engagement with China.
Increase understanding of the Chinese space sector.
Earth Remote Sensing
Support continuity of service for all Earth observing satellite capabilities and continue to champion free and open data sharing principles.
Enable commercial sector value-added services and promote a thriving American commercial remote sensing industry.
Recommit to contributing to global problems and promote the role of Earth observation in addressing these challenges.
Regulation and Oversight
Provide predictability for commercial actors seeking regulatory approval.
Clarify to commercial actors that they are required to abide by international legal principles.
Review, update, and implement the Commercial Space Guidelines in the National Space Policy.
Establish an international dialogue on regulating commercial space.
Ensure orbital debris mitigation requirements address the challenges posed by megaconstellations.
Adapt existing licenses to include new findings and mitigation requirements as they emerge.
Develop contingency measures for the possibility of megaconstellation operators ceasing business with spacecraft already in space.
Sustain stable commitment to the Artemis Program.
Continue work to implement Artemis Accords with the international community.
Continue multilateral engagement on space resources governance.
Implement the National Moon–Mars Development Strategy.
Give NASA the resources to complete the detection, cataloging, and characterization of all NEOs 140 meters and larger
Clarify the existing rules, rights, and responsibilities for a NEO deflection mission and the legality of using nuclear explosive devices
Implement a strategy to achieve the goals of interagency, federal, state, and local preparedness outlined in the 2018 Near-Earth Object Preparedness Strategy and Action Plan
The full document is available at: https://swfound.org/news/all-news/2020/12/swf-provides-space-policy-and-sustainability-recommendations-for-the-incoming-biden-administration.